Reinhold Messner (born 17 September 1944) is a mountaineer, adventurer, explorer, and author from the Italian autonomous province of South Tyrol, "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history."He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen and for being the first climber to ascend all fourteen "eight-thousanders" (peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level). He is the author of at least 63 books (in German, 1970–2006), many of which have been translated into other languages.
Parallels occur when two planets are at the same declination, both in the north or south. They are considered to have the same effect as conjunctions. Contraparallels are when one star in the north and another in the south are at the same declination. They are considered to have the same effect as oppositions.